Covid-19 coronavirus Travel Restrictions Now In Effect
Canada and the U.S. have different covid-19 rules for entering the country and, like Covid itself, they are changing constantly. The U.S. Customs and Border Protection and Canadian Border Services Agency have turned away tens of thousands of travelers who they felt did not meet the Covid-19 travel restrictions. Airlines have also refused to let travelers board their flight if they felt they did not meet all Covid requirements.
This post provides details the definition of essential travel and other issues that apply to both the U.S and Canada. For details on each countries Covid travel restrictions read our checklist for entering Canada, U.S. Covid-19 Travel Restrictions, and Canadian Covid-19 Travel Restrictions. These posts explain the rules and regulations including testing, facemask requirements, quarantine requirements, and more. They also list many Covid-19 information resources including the official government websites for both the US and Canada.
The United States and Canada have reduced the operating hours of numerous border crossing ports between the two countries and we have a separate post which shows all of the Reduced Port Hours Along U.S. and Canadian Border.
What is “Essential Travel”?
Both the U.S. and Canada have moved away from using the essential travel test and instead require full vaccination. The Essential Travel test is no longer used at the U.S. border – you must be vaccinated. However, Canada still has some limited essential service exceptions to the vaccination requirement:.
Technicians or specialists
- Technicians or specialists specified by a government, manufacturer, or company, who enter Canada as required for the purpose of maintaining, repairing, installing or inspecting equipment necessary to support critical infrastructure (Energy and Utilities, Information and Communication Technologies, Finance, Health, Food, Water, Transportation, Safety, Government and Manufacturing) and are required to provide their services within 14 days of their entry to Canada and have reasonable rationales for the immediacy of the work and the inability to plan for a 14 day quarantine.
- Firefighters, peace officers, and paramedics, who return from providing such services in another country and are required to provide their services within 14 days of their return to Canada
- Persons permitted to work in Canada under paragraph 186(t) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations who enter for the purpose of providing those services
- In response to an active emergency in Canada: an emergency service provider, including a firefighter, peace officer or paramedic who enter or return from providing such services in another country and are required to immediately provide their services
- Law enforcement, border enforcement, immigration enforcement, or correctional officers
- Employees of the Government of Canada or a foreign government, including border services officers, immigration enforcement officers, law enforcement and correctional officers, who are escorting individuals travelling to Canada or from Canada pursuant to a legal process such as deportation, extradition or international transfer of offenders
- Officials of the Government of Canada, or a foreign government, including law enforcement, border enforcement, and immigration enforcement officers, who enter Canada for the purposes of law, border or immigration enforcement, or national security activities that support active investigations, ensure continuity of enforcement operations or activities, or transfer information or evidence pursuant to, or in support, of a legal process, and who are required to provide their services within 14 days of entry and have reasonable rationales for the immediacy of the work and the inability to plan for a 14 day quarantine
- A member of the Canadian Forces who enters Canada for the purpose of performing their duties
If you do not clearly fall into one of the essential travel categories, you should be prepared to discuss in great detail why you should be allowed into the country. Bring any relevant paperwork to prove what you are saying. If your reasons are borderline, you may spend hours trying to convince an officer to let you pass. If you are an American entering Canada, you will need to demonstrate that you have a suitable quarantine location, and that you have medical insurance that will cover you if you get sick. In addition, remember that border officials have the right to examine your digital devices to confirm your story so come prepared!
One issue we have noted is that one government agency may say you can enter the country for a certain purpose, but the border officers still reject your entry. For example, you can call the Canadian Border Information Service Covid hotline who may you that you have a valid reason to travel but the Canadian Border Services Agency can still refuse you entry. To repeat, officers at the border have final say on whether you are allowed into their country. They can deny you entry based on hunches and instinct, and do not need a proveable reason to turn you away. See our post on how to prepare for your border crossing to increase your chances of being admitted.
You should also realize that even if you are making an essential trip, this does not change in any way the normal requirements to be allowed into either the U.S. or Canada. You must still have the required documentation, follow the rules on bringing prohibited items across the border, and are still subject to the issues with prior criminal offenses.
What is NOT “Essential Travel”?
You are likely to be turned around at the border if you are trying to cross for any type of “non-essential travel”. The following are examples of things considered NON-ESSENTIAL:
- Shopping or picking up something you ordered
- Visiting your spouse when you live in different countries. The Canadian Family exception does not allow you to come and go for a visit.
- Visit family, friends, girlfriend or boyfriend, or fiancé. The Canadian Family exception does not allow you to come and go for a visit.
- Collecting mail
- Boating across the border for non-essential purposes. Border officials are patrolling waterways to ensure people are not crossing the border to evade the restrictions. In addition, many small vessel reporting sites, small airports of entry, ferry terminals and the Remote Area Border Crossing program have been shut down. The minimum fine for failing to report to the CBSA upon entry to Canada is $1,000 and a possible lifetime ban.
- Fishing or hunting;
- Attend a party or celebration
- Go to a restaurant for take-out
- Taking a shortcut through Canada to get to a U.S. destination faster
- Picking up a pet
- Opening or checking on a property such as a cottage or seasonal home
- Immigration Services
- When entering the U.S., a foreign national coming to temporarily reside with spouse or immediate family during the pandemic. Officers may however consider circumstances such as whether the individual is trying to avoid the pandemic or trying to ensure their partner’s health and well-being.
- Travelling to be a caregiver for a family member. Officers may consider factors such as whether there are other options for caring for the family member.
- Travelling for the birth of a child. This will be a judgement call and the officer may take into account factors such as hospital restrictions on visitation, which may prohibit a visitor who has travelled outside the country in the past 14 days.
- A spouse or child crossing the border with a truck driver transporting essential goods. The passengers may be admitted if they have no other way home or if they are a co-driver, but may be turned away if they do have alternate ways to return home.
Again, be aware that border officers have complete discretion on interpreting these rules. You may be allowed to cross the border one time, and be denied another time when you are traveling for the same reason. A specific detail can sometimes mean the difference between someone allowed entry into the country or being refused.
Other Coronavirus Travel Considerations
If you do travel to another country, it is VERY important that you check with your medical provider to see if you will be covered if you get Covid while abroad. Many policies will NOT cover Covid, and you could be saddled with huge medical bills if you do get sick. A lengthy stay in a hospital could run as much as a million dollars without insurance. Also, remember that if you show symptoms, you will not be allowed to fly home so your options may be very limited.
Be aware that businesses that you might normally use could be closed. These include roadside rest stops with bathrooms and the number of operating restaurants. You should plan meals and your other stops carefully. Restaurants along your route may be offering take-out, but many have closed sit-down dining. Fast food places with drive-thru windows are not always allowing walk-up customers. You should consider carrying water and enough food to make your own meals.
Most of the bridges that span the U.S. Canadian border have eliminated the use of cash to pay tolls. You will need to use a credit card, debit card, or a cashless bridge account.